There is a truism: in order to discuss the subject, you must know it. How should we understand the term substance abuse? Here’s how experts explain it.
It is abusing of all kinds of biological, chemical and medicinal substances, which are not narcotic. At the same time, substance abuse and drug addiction are considered to be general terms. Various glues, varnishes, fuels – any chemical can cause addiction and dependence, as well as drugs.
Substance abuse, as a dependency
Substance abuse, as a rule, is a reason of psychological dependence, sometimes – the physical. There are changes of personality, physical and mental disorders.
The important role that the person eventually turns into a drug abuser is played by factors of personality. Namely:
- emotional instability;
- dependence on the environment;
Substance abuse has social features:
- lack of interest in school and work, which leads to a correspondingly low level of education and qualification;
- lack of spirituality and lack of principles of youth environment;
- the inability of young people to organize their own leisure;
- distortions or complete lack of breeding with low health education;
- family problems;
All these factors, each of them, in one way or another, leave their mark not only on the individual development of drug addict but also on a smoker and an alcoholic.
Classification of toxic substances affecting the central nervous system
Substance abuse has many faces. Only human knows where to wait for blow from, who has chosen the path to bad habits. In practice, each drug has a specific effect on the human psyche and central nervous system (CNS). Depending on this, they are classified as follows:
- opium substance: heroin, morphine, and its synthetic analogs;
- cocaine and preparations from it;
- substances derived from cannabis: resin-like juice from the tops – marijuana, hashish pollen (the plan), marijuana, and others parts of the plant;
- barbituric acid derivatives (CNS stimulants): adalin, bromural, noksiron;
- a group of CNS stimulants: caffeine, chifir, ephedrine, dopings, used by athletes;
- diphenhydramine, meprobamate or tranquilizers, which cause an insatiable desire to continue their reception and drug intoxication at prolonged use in large doses;
- lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other psychometric substances that as well as LSD are capable even after a single admission to stimulate the development of psychoses and stable dependence;
- various organic solvents and household chemicals;
- preparations, which include atropine, atropine, belladonna, astmatol and also some medical preparations with atropine, which are used in the practice of psychiatry during the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis: artan, haloperidol, ramparkin, tsiklodol;
- analgesics containing drugs: verozon, novotsefalgin, pirafen;
- drugs with nicotine.
Today, more than any other young people use “ecstasy.” Its using is accompanied hallucinations and excitatory influence. The drug is useful in practice, because available in tablet form.
Another important concept – is a poly-substance addiction. It is used in relation to substance addict, who uses more than two psychoactive substances which are not drugs.
Substance addiction using petrol
Drug effect using petrol is caused by contained benzene, toluene, and xylene. Inhaled gas irritates the respiratory tract, accompanied by throat sore and cough.
After that, there several stages of the external manifestation are observed.
The first stage of the effects of fumes:
- red face;
- the pulse quickens;
- pupils dilate;
- the coordination of movements and speech is disturbed;
- a man staggers when walking.
The second stage of the effects of fumes:
- A euphoria comes;
- after continuing the inhalation of vapors a euphoria turns into a mental disorders – delirium;
- hallucinations and delusions.
Substance abuse using acetone
Intoxication with different substances leads to strong hallucinations and visions. But the time of “kaif” is coming is much shorter than from the other types of toxins. Euphoria comes almost immediately after inhalation of fumes. Under their influence, the sense of time is lost, and there are “hallucinations.” They are very colorful and generally have a sexual orientation. Sniffer is “getting a rush” with his head down, and eyes closed, and he is deeply indifferently what is happening around.
But if the drug abuser doesn’t break away the source of “kaif” for a long time, he can fall into a coma. The got out of the “kaif” is accompanied by an absolute apathy, a strong weakening of the body, nausea, vomiting and irritability.
Substance abuse with using of glue
It is picked up by a particular type. And the plastic bag is put on the head during that. First, there is a light euphoria under the influence of vapor, and then it is replaced by the hallucinations.
The procedure of “kaif” is finished by the weakness, headache, and nausea and vomiting. Except harm from direct influence of glue vipers, there is another risk of glue abuse: in condition of narcotic impact an addict may not be able to remove the package from his head and is dying from suffocation.
Substance abuse using solvents of nitrocellulose enamels
Probably many who had happened to use nitrocellulose enamels, and well remember the acrid smell of solvents. Addicts use vipers of paint formulations for the “kaif”. They stimulate the increase of mobility, causing disturbance of consciousness, in contrast to other stimuli, their effect is accompanied by an abrupt change of ecstasy feeling and unspeakable malice. Prolonged inhalation may cause delirium with visual and auditory hallucinations. It creates the illusion of filling the body with something weightless, drug abuser feels elation.
After some time, these feelings pass, and there are an only headache, incredible weakness, nausea, and vomiting.
The symptoms of substance abuse
Pay attention that no matter what is used by an addict to getting “a kaif”, it’s process has some similarities. Especially, we can see it in the “exit point” of the narcotic state. Symptoms depend on the type of using the substance, the time of filling the body with the respective vipers and how long the drug abuser “practices”.
At the start of initiation to the bad habit an addict after the first 3-5 inhalations has such symptoms:
- there is a hum in a head;
- an addict has tears and saliva;
- a little dizzy is following;
- the tickle in the throat;
- dilated pupils;
- the reaction of concentration is weakened;
- reaction to external stimuli becomes weaker.
“High” lasts from 10 to 15 minutes.
During the next step out of the “high” drug abuser feels:
- strong thirsty;
- sweet taste in the mouth.
During the progress of substances abuse the consequences from inhalation of toxins come to the next stage of the “high” – psychomotor agitation and psych sensory disorder. Substance abuse seems that he has heard repeated sounds that were moving into the echo.
Addicts with a solid “experience” lose weight perceptibly. At the same time, their hair becomes brittle and nails begin to “break.” The face becomes puffy, gets an ashy color, skin becomes dry, and there are scars and festering at the areas of contact with toxic substances. Teeth noticeably suffer from decay teeth. The appearance of man is changing.
Doctors diagnose “the substance abuse” after the detection of a number of characteristic symptoms:
- irresistible craving for readmission substance;
- an effort to increase the dose of taking toxicity;
- the presence of physical and mental dependency on narcotic drugs.
Substance abuse among adolescents
Experts are sounding the alarm about the size of child abuse. Teens – are passionate nature, they are attracted to new things, and their curiosity has no limits. In addition, the body has an increased susceptibility and is characterized by low levels of willpower with not formed a sense of self-criticism.
There are three reasons which force addicts to bad habits:
- psychological: if the forbidden fruit is really sweet, why not to try it, especially if adult forbids, you need to find out why – it is the psychology of the young man’s behavior. The desire to show off them adult – all this pushes to the misguided step;
- social: substance abuse most often visits the house with dysfunctional families and liberal parenting style, if the young man’s life is not filled with useful employment, he falls into boredom that pulls him out and apathy is replaced with bad habit;
- other reasons: desire, taking a chance to learn something new, a desire to demonstrate themselves before their peers, etc.
Prevention among young people
Its stages are directly related to the reasons that provoke the teens to have a bad habit, and aren’t fundamentally different from the approach to solving problems in other similar cases: diagnosis, subsequent information collection and analysis, information, combined with training, participation in solving social and psychological problems, as well as a phased current control.
For efficiency opposition to substance abuse, there are worked out and implemented various prevention programs. They include:
- the procedure of motivation formation to behavior changes;
- educational and training programs, activating the protective resources of personality and behavioral strategies;
- correctional programs;
- training of specialists of thematic are;
- development of networks of social support for the teenager: family, school, informal “groups by interests”, groups of anonymous addicts.
Prevention of addicts’ dependence can be primary, secondary, and tertiary.
Primary prevention includes social and educational technology through the provision of objective information and motivation for a healthy lifestyle.
Secondary prevention is a social technology for the prevention of addiction, psychological and social adaptation.
Tertiary prevention combines medical-psychological and psychotherapeutic techniques in order to prevent recurrence, awareness, change and development of a more active pattern of behavior.
Treatment for substance abuse
Specialists recommend only specialized hospitals for treatment. First, the patient is should be protected from drugs. This has to be done gradually or immediately – depending upon the extent of the disease, duration of its occurrence and the size of the received dose. Opium, morphine, barbiturates are usually removed by gradually reducing the dose. For the purpose of relief of withdrawal symptoms there is used detoxification therapy, psychotropic drugs are injected, such as pirroksan, neutrophil, vitamin therapy is provided.
If the patient’s condition is satisfactory, there are reasons to suspect him in using drugs.
In the course of restoring the health the techniques of psychotherapy are used, social and occupational therapy are provided. Doctors asked friends and relatives to help them during this period and to protect the patient from the former “partners by bad habit”, to change life priorities.
In practice, it is not easy because the recent “companions in misfortune” do not refuse immediately from supervision of his friend. So sometimes, to ensure normal living conditions, without a hint of “hot spots” of recover, even have to relocate.
The second reason, according to which a former addict should be removed from the source of provocation as far as possible, is the duration of the healing process. It is at least a few months the hospital, plus supporting long-term outpatient treatment. It is at least a few months in the hospital, plus supporting long-term outpatient treatment. Only a strong belief and the fact of the return to a healthy lifestyle usually give the expected result.
Since substance abuse – is, first of all, the problem of adolescents, the main focus of prevention should be concentrated in places of recreation of people, institutions, enterprises and organizations of the social infrastructure.
The most important thing for a young man – is to find an occupation for the soul and protect him from the influence of bad company.
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